Chipotle Mexican Grill Cmg Ipo

Chipotle mexican grill cmg ipo

First triple-digit rise in more than five years

American fast casual Mexican restaurant chain


Traded asNYSE: CMG
S&P 500 Component
IndustryFast casual
FoundedJuly 13, 1993; 26 years ago (1993-07-13)[1]
FounderSteve Ells
HeadquartersNewport Beach, California, U.S.

Number of locations

2,500 (2018)[2]

Area served

United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France

Key people

  • Steve Ells (Executive Chairman)
  • Brian Niccol (CEO)
  • Mark Crumpacker (Chief Marketing and Development Officer)
  • Jack R.

    Hartung (Chief Financial Officer)

RevenueUS$3.9 billion (2016)[3]

Operating income

US$34.57 million (2016)[3]

Net income

US$22.94 million (2016)[3]
Total assets US$2.026 billion (2016)[3]
Total equity US$1.402 billion (2016)[4]

Number of employees

64,570[5][6] (2017)

Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. (, chih-POHT-lay),[7] often known simply as Chipotle, is an American chain of fast casual restaurants in the United States, United Kingdom,[8]Canada,[9][10]Germany,[11] and France,[12] specializing in tacos and Mission-style[13][14]burritos.

Its name derives from chipotle, the Nahuatl name for a smoked and dried jalapeñochili pepper.[15] The company trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol CMG.[16]

Chipotle is one of the first chains of fast casual dining establishments.[17] Competitors in the fast-casual Mexican market include Qdoba Mexican Grill, Moe's Southwest Grill, Rubio's Coastal Grill, and Baja Fresh.[18]

Founded by Steve Ells on July 13, 1993, Chipotle had 16 restaurants (all in Colorado) when McDonald's Corporation became a major investor in 1998.

By the time McDonald's fully divested itself from Chipotle in 2006,[19] the chain had grown to over 500 locations.

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With more than 2,000 locations, Chipotle had a net income of US $475.6 million and a staff of more than 45,000 employees in 2015.[3]

In May 2018, Chipotle announced the relocation of their corporate headquarters to Newport Beach, California, in Southern California, ending their relationship with Denver after 25 years.


Founder Steve Ells attended the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, New York. Afterward, he became a line cook for Jeremiah Tower at Stars in San Francisco.[20] There, Ells observed the popularity of the taquerías and San Francisco burritos in the Mission District. In 1993, Ells took what he learned in San Francisco[21] and opened the first Chipotle Mexican Grill in Denver, Colorado, in a former Dolly Madison Ice Cream store at 1644 East Evans Avenue,[22] near the University of Denver campus, using an $85,000 loan from his father.[19] Ells and his father calculated that the store would need to sell 107 burritos per day to be profitable.

After one month, the original restaurant was selling over 1,000 burritos a day.[16] The second store opened in 1995 using Chipotle's cash flow, and the third was opened using an SBA loan. To fund more growth, Ells' father invested $1.5 million.

Afterwards, Ells created a board of directors and business plan, raising an additional $1.8 million for the company.[23] Ells had originally planned to use funds from the first Chipotle to open a fine-dining restaurant, but instead focused on Chipotle Mexican Grill when the restaurants saw success.[24][25]

In 1998, the first restaurant outside of Colorado opened in Kansas City, Missouri.[26] The company opened its first location in Minnesota by opening near the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis in March 1999.[27]

In 1998, McDonald's made an initial minority investment in the company.

By 2001, the company had grown to be Chipotle's largest investor.[19] The investment from McDonald's allowed the firm to quickly expand, from 16 restaurants in 1998 to over 500 by 2005.[28] On January 26, 2006, Chipotle made its initial public offering (IPO) after increasing the share price twice due to high pre-IPO demand.

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In its first day as a public company, the stock rose exactly 100%, resulting in the best U.S.-based IPO in six years, and the second-best IPO for a restaurant after Boston Market. The money from the offering was then used to fund new store growth.[29]

In March 2005, Monty Moran was appointed president and chief operating officer of Chipotle while founder Steve Ells remained chairman and CEO.[30]

In October 2006, McDonald's fully divested from Chipotle.[31] This was part of a larger initiative for McDonald's to divest all of its non-core business restaurants — Chipotle, Donatos Pizza, and Boston Market — so that it could focus on the main McDonald's chain.[32] McDonald's had invested approximately $360 million into Chipotle, and took out $1.5 billion.[23] McDonald's had attempted to get Chipotle to add drive-through windows and a breakfast menu, which Ells resisted.[33][34] In 2008, Chipotle opened its first location outside of the United States in Toronto.[10]

In January 2009, president and chief operating officer Monty Moran was promoted to co-CEO, a position that he would share with Steve Ells, while Moran retained his president position.[35]

In a list of fastest-growing restaurant chains in 2009, Chipotle was ranked eighth, based on increases in U.S.

sales over the past year,[36] and in 2010 Chipotle was ranked third.[37]Consumer Reports ranked Chipotle as the best Mexican fast-food chain in 2011.[38] The company serves approximately 750,000 customers per day.[39]

In December 2010, Chipotle hired chef Nate Appleman to develop new cuisine.

Appleman has won Rising Star Chef from the James Beard Foundation, was named "Best New Chef" by the Food & Wine magazine, and competed on The Next Iron Chef.[40]

In 2010, U.S.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) audited Chipotle's Minneapolis restaurants, and found that some employees had been hired using fraudulent documents. In December, Chipotle fired 450 employees from its Minneapolis restaurants as a result of the audit, resulting in protests by local groups.[41][42] In February 2011, ICE expanded the audit to include 60 restaurants in Virginia and Washington, D.C.[43] which resulted in 40 workers being fired.

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In April 2011, the criminal division of the Attorney General's office in Washington, D.C., joined the case, and ICE agents began interviewing employees at 20 to 25 restaurants in other locations, such as Los Angeles and Atlanta.[44] In response to the government investigations, Chipotle hired former director of ICE Julie Myers Wood and high-profile attorneys Robert Luskin and Gregory B.


In December 2016, Chipotle announced that co-CEO Monty Moran has stepped down from his role effective immediately with Steve Ells becoming the sole CEO.[46][47] Eleven months later, founder Steve Ells announced in November 2017 that he would be stepping down as CEO.[48]

In December 2017, Chipotle announced it signed a 15-year lease and in late 2018 will move around 450 corporate employees - currently housed in multiple buildings around downtown Denver - into the new 1144 Fifteenth Tower and occupy around 126,000 square feet or 5 floors of the 40-story tower.

In February 2018, Chipotle announced that Taco Bell CEO Brian Niccol would replace Steve Ells as CEO starting on March 5 while Ellis would retain his chairman position.[49] Many industry analysts praised Niccol's appointment saying that Chipotle "needed new blood."[50] Chipotle stock went up $30.27, or 12.04%, as a result of the announcement. However, other analysts criticized the announcement by saying that "the move goes against everything the burrito chain stands for."[51]

In May 2018, Chipotle announced that it would relocate headquarters from Denver to Newport Beach, California in Southern California.

Corporate functions handled in their Denver and New York offices would move to Newport Beach or to an existing office in Columbus, Ohio.

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This move would impact 400 workers, some being offered relocation and retention packages.[52]

In June 2018, under new CEO Brian Niccol, the company announced the closing of 65 under-performing restaurants.[53][54]

Other restaurant expansion[edit]

In 2011, Steve Ells was a judge for the TV show America's Next Great Restaurant and investor of ANGR Holdings, the company that will be running the winning concept's restaurants.

Chipotle has agreed to purchase Ells' investment in ANGR at his cost, provide support for ANGR operations, and invest a total of $2.3 million in cash contributions.[55] The winning concept, Soul Daddy, was quickly closed after operating for less than 5 weeks.[56]

In September 2011, Chipotle opened an Asian fast-casual concept restaurant named ShopHouse Southeast Asian Kitchen in Washington, D.C.[57] The company has said the new restaurant "would follow the Chipotle service format and its focus on 'food with integrity' in ingredients."[58] Chipotle's plan was to start with only one store, and see how the restaurant works out before expanding the concept.[59]

On December 18, 2013, the company revealed that it had opened its first fast-food pizza chain in Denver back in May 2013.

Chipotle Mexican Grill

According to Associated Press, Chipotle partnered with a local full-service restaurant called Pizzeria Locale to create a fast-food version of the eatery, keeping its name. The company plans to open at least two more pizzerias in the Denver area.[60]

In April 2014, Chipotle announced an increase in menu prices for the first time in nearly three years, due to increasing costs for steak, avocados, and cheese.

The price increase was expected to be rolled out from the end of second quarter of 2014 through the end of the third quarter.[61] In late 2015, Chipotle expanded its mobile strategy through delivery partnerships with tech startups like Tapingo, a delivery service that targets college campuses.[62]

On July 29, 2016, the company announced the opening of its first Tasty Made burger restaurant in the fall.

Chipotle was still dealing with the various virus outbreaks with additional marketing. The company was also reducing the number of new stores for the year from 235 to 220.[63]

The newer restaurant concepts did not perform as well as expected so that ShopHouse Southeast Asian Kitchen and Tasty Made were respectively closed in March 2017[64] and February 2018[65] leaving only Pizzeria Locale operating besides the parent company.


According to an article in The Motley Fool, Chipotle had 17 locations outside of the United States by October 2014 with the majority in Canada, and the UK was in the process of opening more locations.[66] The rate of overseas expansion was slower than expected.[67] Many of the press reviewers thought that the food was overpriced for their area.[12][68]

As of 2018 there are 33 locations outside of the United States with 19 locations in Canada (Ottawa, Toronto, Markham, Vaughan, Mississauga, Oakville, Vancouver), 6 locations in The United Kingdom (London), 6 in France (Paris), and 2 in Germany (Frankfurt).[better source needed][3][69]


In August 2008, Chipotle opened its first location outside of the United States in Toronto.[10] The second location in Toronto–and in all of Canada–was not opened until 2010.[67]

The first Canadian location outside of the Toronto area was opened in Vancouver in December 2012.[70] A second Vancouver-area location was opened in Burnaby in October 2014[71] followed by a third in Surrey in January 2016,[72] a fourth in Langley in October 2016,[73] and a fifth in West Vancouver in March 2018.[74]

The first location in the nation's capital of Ottawa was opened in February 2017 at the Rideau Centre.[75]

Chipotle rapidly expanded in the Greater Toronto area, and is still opening new locations.[citation needed] As of 2018, there are 11 locations in Toronto, 2 in Vaughan, 2 in Mississauga, 1 in Oakville, and 1 location in Markham.

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United Kingdom[edit]

Chipotle expanded to Europe with the first European restaurant opening in May 2010 in London.[8][76][77] A second location opened in London in September 2011.[78] The following year, three additional locations were quickly opened in the London area.[79] After this growth spurt, the rate of further expansion in London slowed greatly with the sixth location appearing in 2013[80] and the seventh in June 2015.[81] Although Chipotle blames the slow growth in the United Kingdom on the British unfamiliarity with Mexican foods,[82] several locally owned burrito chains had opened locations across the United Kingdom during the same interval.[83]


The first location in France opened in Paris in May 2012.[12][84]

Expansion in France was much slower than that in the United Kingdom or Canada, with a second location in Paris opening in 2013[85] and a third location in 2014.[86] At 7,000 square feet, the restaurant at La Défense is, as of 2015[update], the largest Chipotle location in the world, while a typical Chipotle restaurant is usually between 2,200 and 2,500 square feet.[87] A fourth Parisian location was opened in Levallois-Perret in 2015[88] followed by a fifth[89] and a sixth[90] Parisian location in 2016, both in Saint-Germain-des-Prés.


The first location in Germany opened up in Frankfurt's Skyline Plaza shopping mall in August 2013.[11][68]

Second location opened in Frankfurt's MyZeil shopping mall in April 2019.[91]

Corporate management[edit]

Chipotle's team includes a residing corporate office of managers and its board of directors.

Members of both teams are appointed to serve on committees: audit, compensation, and nominating and corporate governance.

The top management team consists of the Chief Executive Officer, Steve Ells; the Chief Financial Officer, Jack R.

Hartung; the Chief Marketing and Development Officer, Mark Crumpacker.[92] The current board of directors consists of: Steve Ells, Patrick Flynn, Albert Baldocchi, Neil Flanzraich, Darlene Friedman, Stephen Gillet, Kimbal Musk and John Charlesworth.[93] On March 14, 2018 it was reported that Mark Crumpacker, who had previously been charged in a 2016 cocaine ring indictment, would be leaving the company.[94]

Founder Steve Ells serves as chairman of the company, and served as Chief executive officer until November 2017.[95][48] He has a 1.25% stake in the company.[96] The labor-market research firm Glassdoor reported that Steve Ells earned $29 million in 2014, versus a median of $19,000 for Chipotle's workers, making the CEO-to-worker pay ratio 1522:1.[97]

On February 13, 2018, Chipotle announced that Taco Bell CEO Brian Niccol would replace Steve Ells as CEO starting on March 5 while Ells would retain his chairman position.[49]

Operation and distribution[edit]

All of Chipotle's restaurants are company-owned, rather than franchised.[98] As of December 2012[update], 1430 restaurants have since opened throughout the United States and Canada, with locations in 43 states, Ontario, British Columbia, and the District of Columbia.[99][100]

The field team are the employees who work closely with but not directly within specific restaurants.

The field support system includes apprentice team leaders (step up from restaurateurs), team leaders or area managers, team directors and regional directors (not atypical for them to oversee more than fifty locations).[101] Because Chipotle does not franchise, all restaurants are corporately owned. Thus, whenever Chipotle is in the process of launching a new location, the field team hires a new general manager and trains them at a current location so that they will be ready for the new location when it opens for business.

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The corporate office takes care of finding and funding new locations as well.[102]


Chipotle's menu consists of five items: burritos, bowls, tacos, quesadillas, and salads.

The price of each item is based on the choice of chicken, pork carnitas, barbacoa, steak, carne asada, tofu-based "sofritas",[103][104] or vegetarian (with guacamole, which would be at an extra charge otherwise).

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Additional optional toppings are offered free of charge, including: rice, beans, four types of salsa, sour cream, cheese, and lettuce.[105][106]

When asked in 2007 about expanding the menu, Steve Ells said, "[I]t's important to keep the menu focused, because if you just do a few things, you can ensure that you do them better than anybody else."[107] Chipotle also offers a children's menu.[108][109] Most restaurants sell beer and margaritas in addition to soft drinks and fruit drinks.[110]

The majority of food is prepared in each restaurant.

Some exceptions are the beans and carnitas, which are prepared at a central kitchen in Chicago, Illinois.[111] None of the restaurants have freezers, microwave ovens, or can openers.[112]

The chain experimented with breakfast foods at two airports in the Washington (D.C.) metropolitan area but decided against expanding the menu in that direction.[113][114][115] Starting in 2009, selected restaurants had offered a pozole soup,[116][117][118] which has since been discontinued.

Chipotle mexican grill cmg ipo

In June 2015, Chipotle began test marketing a pork and chicken chorizo-type sausage as a new protein option at selected locations in the Kansas City area.[119][120][121] Some food writers have expressed their health related concerns over the protein's relatively high sodium content since a 4-ounce serving contains 293 calories and 803 milligrams of sodium[122] while the American Heart Association’s recommended daily amount is less than 1,500 milligrams of sodium.[123] In contrast, the protein options with next highest sodium contents are Barbacoa with 530 milligrams and sofritas with 555 milligrams.[122] An earlier version on the Mexican sausage was tested in Denver and New York City in 2011,[124] but that test was terminated when that version of the sausage was perceived as looking too greasy.[125] Chorizo was discontinued in September 2017[126] but was returned to the menu in the following year for a limited time.[127]

Chipotle accepts fax orders, and in 2005 the company added the ability to order online from their website.

For both online and fax orders, customers proceed to the front of the line to pay for pre-ordered food.[128] In 2009, Chipotle released an app for the iPhone that allows users to find nearby Chipotle locations, place an order, and prepay with a credit card.[129] In 2013, Chipotle released an Android app that allows users to locate nearby Chipotle locations, place an order, prepay with a credit or gift card, and access favorites and recent orders.[130][131]


In 2003, a Center for Science in the Public Interest report stated that Chipotle's burritos contain over 1,000 calories, which is nearly equivalent to two meals' worth of food.[132][133]MSNBC placed the burritos on their list of the "20 Worst Foods in America" because of their high caloric content and high sodium.[134] When a burrito with carnitas, rice, vegetables, cheese, guacamole, and salsa was compared with a typical Big Mac, the burrito had more fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and sodium than the Big Mac, but it also had more protein and fiber.[135] The restaurant has also received praise – included the restaurant in its list of the "Healthiest Fast Food Restaurants".[136]

Chipotle's vegetarian options include rice, black beans, fajita vegetables (onions and bell peppers), salsa, guacamole and cheese.[137] All items other than the meats, cheese, sour cream, and honey vinaigrette dressing are vegan.[137] As of late 2013, Chipotle developed a new cooking strategy for the pinto beans, eliminating the bacon and making them vegetarian and vegan-friendly.[138] The cheese is processed with vegetable-based rennet in order to be suitable for vegetarians.[137] In April 2010, Chipotle began testing a vegan "Garden Blend" option, which is a plant-based meat alternative marinated in chipotle adobo, at six locations in the U.S.[139][140] The flour tortillas used for the burritos and soft tacos are the only items that contain gluten.[137]

Food sourcing[edit]

In 1999, while looking for ways to improve the taste of the carnitas,[20] Steve Ells was prompted by an article written by Edward Behr to visit Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs).[141] Ells found the CAFOs "horrific", and began sourcing from open-range pork suppliers.

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This caused an increase in both the price and the sales of the carnitas burritos.[76]

In 2001, Chipotle released a mission statement called Food With Integrity, which highlighted Chipotle's efforts to increase their use of naturally raised meat, organic produce, and dairy without added hormones.[7] Chipotle only uses the leg and thigh meat from its chickens; the breast meat is sold to Panera Bread.[142]

Founder Steve Ells has testified before the United States Congress in support of the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act, which aims to reduce the amount of antibiotics given to farm animals.[76][143]

Since 2006, the Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW), a Floridian farmworker organization, has protested Chipotle’s refusal to sign a Fair Food agreement, which would commit the restaurant chain to pay a penny-per-pound premium on its Florida tomatoes to boost tomato harvesters’ wages, and to only buy Florida tomatoes from growers who comply with the Fair Food Code of Conduct.[144] In 2009, the creators of the documentary film Food, Inc. (along with 31 other leaders in the sustainable food movement) signed an open letter of support for the CIW’s campaign, stating that, "If Chipotle is sincere in its wishes to reform its supply chain, the time has come to work with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers as a true partner in the protection of farmworkers rights."[145] In September 2009, Chipotle announced that it would sidestep partnership with the CIW and instead work directly with East Coast Growers and Packers to increase wages for its tomato pickers.[146] CEO Steve Ells has framed the dispute as a fundamental issue of control, stating that, "the CIW wants us to sign a contract that would let them control Chipotle's decisions regarding food in the future."[147] In October 2012, Chipotle Mexican Grill signed an agreement with the CIW and became the 11th company to join the organization's Fair Food Program.[148]

In January 2015, Chipotle pulled carnitas from its menu in a third of its restaurants; company officials cited animal welfare problems at one of the suppliers, found during a regular audit, as the reason.[149] Subsequently, a false rumor spread online claiming it was done to appease Muslims who consider pork to be unclean, leading to some protests on social media.[150] The company still uses antibiotic-free and hormone-free steak in its restaurants, despite being briefly forced to "serve beef that is not naturally raised" during the summer of 2013, posting an in-store notice each time that occurred.[151] Roberto Ferdman of The Washington Post opined that Chipotle's stated mission to sell "food with integrity" may be "untenable" if meat producers continue to breach Chipotle's ethical standards.[149]

Also in 2015, Chipotle stopped using genetically modified corn and soy beans in their foods, claiming to be the first nationwide restaurant to cook completely GMO free.[152] This was done in response to increasing consumer demand for GMO free products.

Food safety[edit]

Since 2008, a former Kansas State University food safety professor has accused Chipotle of confusing the public by using such terms as "naturally raised meats", "organic ingredients", and "locally sourced" and trying to equate those terms with food safety.[153] In rebuttal, a Chipotle spokesperson told The Daily Beast that "all of our practices have always been very much within industry norms. It's important to note that restaurant practices are regulated by health codes, and restaurants are routinely inspected by health officials.

Everything we have done in our supply chain and in our restaurants has been within industry norms."[153] Yet, FiveThirtyEight pointed out that the 2015 norovirus outbreak appears to be unusual[154] and others are criticizing their food sourcing or handling practices.[155][156]MarketWatch wrote that the result of all of these outbreaks will be to force Chipotle to obtain their produce from larger corporate farms that can afford the more extensive microbial food-safety testing programs and to process vegetables at centralized locations instead of at the individual stores, both of which are industry-standard practices that the company had previously criticized.[157]The New York Times implied that the company's insistence on maintaining its long standing rhetoric about "food integrity" seemed to be quite opposite with the realities of recent current events and made it appear that the management was just ignoring their current problems.[158] It also has been pointed out that Chipotle's current record-keeping system is actually hindering the health authorities' investigation in locating the sources of the various infections.[158]

A writer for the magazine Popular Science pointed out that Chipotle had publicly acknowledged that they "may be at a higher risk for food-borne illness outbreaks than some competitors due to our use of fresh produce and meats rather than frozen, and our reliance on employees cooking with traditional methods rather than automation."[159][160][161]Henry I.

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Miller, a medical researcher and columnist and the founding director of the FDA's Office of Biotechnology, asked: "One wonders whether Chipotle’s "traditional methods" include employees' neglecting to wash their hands before preparing food, which is how norovirus is usually spread.

And the fresh versus frozen dichotomy is nothing more than a snow-job. Freezing E. coli-contaminated food does not kill the pathogens; it preserves them."[162] Describing food poisoning outbreaks as "something of a Chipotle trademark; the recent ones are the fourth and fifth this year [2015], one of which was not disclosed to the public", Miller notes that "a particularly worrisome aspect of the company's serial deficiencies is that there have been at least three unrelated pathogens in the outbreaks – Salmonella and E.

coli bacteria and norovirus. In other words, there has been more than a single glitch; suppliers and employees have found a variety of ways to contaminate what Chipotle cavalierly sells (at premium prices) to its customers."[162]

A writer for the North Carolina newspaper The News & Observer called Chipotle's "food with integrity" a "lucrative farce" and a "marketing ploy" by pointing out that organic food is "often grown with manure (an 'all-natural' fertilizer), which can certainly increase the risks of accidentally spreading fecal bacteria like E.


In December 2015, Seattle health officials closed a Seattle-area Chipotle for a day after it had repeatedly had small numbers of violations during recent consecutive inspections that previously would not have generated a closure order.[164] On December 10, 2015, CEO Steve Ells released a press statement apologizing for 2015 outbreaks and promised changes to minimize the risks of future outbreaks.[165]

March 2008 hepatitis outbreak[edit]

In March and April 2008, the Community Epidemiology Branch of the San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency traced a hepatitis A outbreak in San Diego County to a single Chipotle restaurant located in La Mesa, California in which 22 customers were infected with the virus.[166][167]

April 2008 norovirus outbreak[edit]

In 2008, Chipotle was implicated in a norovirus outbreak in Kent, Ohio, where over 400 people became ill after eating at a Chipotle restaurant.[168] Officials at the Ohio Department of Health said that the outbreak was caused by Norovirus Genotype G2.[169] Many of the victims were students at Kent State University.[170] The initial source of the outbreak was never found.

February 2009 Campylobacter jejuni outbreak[edit]

In 2009, an investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health traced an outbreak of campylobacteriosis to a Chipotle Mexican Grill in Apple Valley, Minnesota.[171][172][173] The investigation found that chicken was sometimes served undercooked by the restaurant and determined that lettuce which had been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked chicken was the vector for the outbreak.[174][175][third-party source needed]

July 2015 E.

coli outbreak[edit]

In early November 2015, The Oregonian reported that there was a little-known E.

Speedy Chicken and Steak Burrito Made in Chipotle Mexican Grill in Fresno, California

coli outbreak that had occurred earlier in July in which five people were infected with the O157:H7 strain of E. coli.

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The outbreak was traced to a single Chipotle location in Seattle and that the incident was not publicized at that time.[176][177] Seattle public health officials defended their actions at that time by saying that the outbreak was over by the time they made an association with Chipotle.

Health officials were unable to trace the source of the July outbreak and said that the cause of the July outbreak is unrelated to the October/November outbreak.[176]

August 2015 norovirus outbreak[edit]

Another norovirus outbreak was confirmed to have occurred in August 2015 at a Simi Valley, California location in which 80 customers and 18 employees reported becoming ill.[178][179]Ventura County health inspectors found various health violations during two inspections following the outbreak report.[180] Despite those violations, the county health officials did not close the restaurant and allowed it to continue to operate.[178] In a January 2016 article, The New York Times reported that the number of victims involved in the Simi Valley norovirus outbreak was actually 207, twice the number that was reported earlier.[181]

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Attorney's Office for the Central District of California in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration has gotten a federal grand jury to issue a subpoena in January 2016 as part of a criminal investigation seeking documents and information from Chipotle concerning the Simi Valley norovirus outbreak.[181][182] As of January 2016[update], it is too early to tell which organization is the actual target of the investigation.

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In most cases involving norovirus outbreaks that involved a single location, state and/or local authorities are the usual jurisdiction responsible in the investigation and prosecution of those type of cases. However, Ventura County officials had been criticized for their handling of parts of their investigation, and for allowing the restaurant to continue to operate after finding health violations during consecutive inspections.

Less than two weeks later, a federal class action lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California claiming that Chipotle knowingly allowed an ill kitchen manager to work for two days before sending that person home.

Then, the restaurant actively deep-cleaned the restaurant to remove all traces of contamination prior to notifying the Ventura County Environmental Health Division of the existing outbreak, hindering their investigation. The lawsuit also claimed that the number of known victims was as high as 234 and estimates that the number of meals that the infected employee may have come in contact with could be as high 3,000.[183][184][185]

August 2015 Salmonella outbreak[edit]

At almost the same time as the Simi Valley norovirus outbreak, Minnesota health officials confirmed a Salmonella outbreak that affected 17 Minneapolis-area Chipotle restaurants in mid-August 2015.

The source of the outbreak was traced back to contaminated tomatoes that were grown in Mexico.[186][187] The Minnesota Department of Health reported that samples from 45 victims were tested and found that their illness was caused by the Salmonella Newport bacterium as determined by DNA profiling.[188] Later, the state officials reported that the total of persons who became infected was increased to 64 and the number Chipotle locations in which they had acquired the bacterium was increased to 22, all located within the state of Minnesota.[189]

October 2015 E.

coli outbreak[edit]

In October 2015, at least 22 people were reported to have gotten sick after eating at several different Chipotle locations in the states of Washington and Oregon.

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At that time, an epidemiologist for the Washington State Department of Health said the culprit appeared to be a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacterium, but they were still waiting the outcome of several laboratory tests before they could give a definitive result.[190][191][192] As a precaution, Chipotle had closed 43 stores in Washington and Oregon pending the results and recommendations of the involved health authorities.

On November 5, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had reported that the number of persons reported ill had risen to 40 known cases and that the bacteria samples taken from 7 infected persons in Washington and 3 persons in Oregon states were confirmed to be infected by the same strain of E. coli, the Shiga toxin-producing STEC O26 strain, as determined by DNA profiling.[193] At least 12 persons required hospitalization, but no fatalities.

As of November 2015, Health authorities were still trying to trace the exact source of the bacterial contamination, but suspected fresh produce.[194]

On November 12, the CDC increased the number of known cases to 50, the number of persons requiring hospitalization to 14, and the number of DNA fingerprint confirmations to 33.[195] Through a match via Pulsenet, the DNA fingerprint also matched a recent case in Minnesota, but the ill person did not eat at Chipotle.

The source of the bacteria infection still had not yet been determined at the time of the report released by the CDC and the CDC is trying to use the more definitive, but more time consuming whole genome sequencing procedure to see if they are able to determine the relationships between all of the STEC O26 cases.

In the meantime, Chipotle reopened the closed restaurants on November 11 after disposing all of the food within the closed facilities and deep cleaning those facilities.[196]

On November 20, the CDC reported that the number of STEC O26 cases, as determined by DNA fingerprinting, had increased to 45 with 16 persons requiring hospitalization and the total number states being affected had increased to six.[197] Besides Oregon and Washington, new cases were reported in the states of Minnesota, California, New York, and Ohio.[198] 43 out of 45 of the affected individuals had reported that they had eaten at a Chipotle in the week before they had become sick.

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On December 4, the CDC reported that the number of STEC O26 cases, as determined by DNA fingerprinting, had increased to 52 with 20 persons requiring hospitalization and the total number states being affected had increased to nine.[199] New cases were reported in the states of California (1), Illinois (1), Maryland (1), Ohio (2), Pennsylvania (1), and Washington (1).[200]

The price of shares for Chipotle stock dropped a further 12% immediately after the CDC had issued their update on November 20.[201] Share prices had been dropping since the initial announcement of the E.

coli outbreak in late October with investors unsure if the drop in share prices just a temporary aberration and that Chipotle management is handling the incident as well as they could. Chipotle has since hired a consultant to improve their food safety program and have their program reviewed by both the CDC and FDA.[202]

The second Chipotle Mexican Grill location in London, located on Baker Street
A Chipotle restaurant in Brandon, Florida, having the typical service-line layout with menu above
Chipotle regular sized chips and queso with a side of sour cream.
Customers at a Chipotle restaurant in Fredericksburg, Virginia